Mastering JavaScript: Unraveling the Power of Web Development

Mastering JavaScript: Unraveling the Power of Web Development

Getting Started with 'Hello World' - Day 2

JavaScript Syntax: JavaScript can be implemented using JavaScript statements that are placed within the <script>... </script> HTML tags in a web page. You can place the <script> tags, containing your JavaScript, anywhere within your web page, but it is normally recommended that you should keep it within the <head> tags. The <script> tag alerts the browser program to start interpreting all the text between these tags as a script. A simple syntax of your JavaScript will appear as follows.

      <script language = "javascript" type = "text/javascript">
         document.write("Welcome to Engineering World!");

This code will produce the following result on page − "Welcome to Engineering World!"

Note: langauge = "javascript" type=”text/javascript” is not necessary in HTML5. Following code will also work.

         document.write("Welcome to Engineering World!");

Whitespace and Line Breaks: JavaScript ignores spaces, tabs, and newlines that appear in JavaScript programs. You can use spaces, tabs, and newlines freely in your program and you are free to format and indent your programs in a neat and consistent way that makes the code easy to read and understand.

Semicolons are Optional Simple statements in JavaScript are generally followed by a semicolon character, just as they are in C, C++, and Java. JavaScript, however, allows you to omit this semicolon if each of your statements are placed on a separate line. For example, the following code could be written without semicolons.

<script language = "javascript" type = "text/javascript">
   var1 = 10
   var2 = 20

But when formatted in a single line as follows, you must use semicolons −

<script language = "javascript" type = "text/javascript">
   var1 = 10; var2 = 20;

Note − It is a good programming practice to use semicolons.

Case Sensitivity: JavaScript is a case-sensitive language. This means that the language keywords, variables, function names, and any other identifiers must always be typed with a consistent capitalization of letters. So the identifiers Time and TIME will convey different meanings in JavaScript.

NOTE − Take Care cae while writing variable and function names in JavaScript.

Comments in JavaScript: JavaScript supports both C-style and C++-style comments, Thus − Any text between a // and the end of a line is treated as a comment and is ignored by JavaScript. Any text between the characters /* and */ is treated as a comment. This may span multiple lines. JavaScript also recognizes the HTML comment opening sequence <!--. JavaScript treats this as a single-line comment, just as it does the // comment. The HTML comment closing sequence --> is not recognized by JavaScript so it should be written as //-->.

Example: The following example shows how to use comments in JavaScript.

<script language = "javascript" type = "text/javascript">
      // This is a comment. It is similar to comments in C++

      * This is a multi-line comment in JavaScript
      * It is very similar to comments in C Programming

Enabling JavaScript in Browsers

JavaScript in Internet Explorer

Here are simple steps to turn on or turn off JavaScript in your Internet Explorer −

  • Follow Tools → Internet Options from the menu.

  • Select Security tab from the dialog box.

  • Click the Custom Level button.

  • Scroll down till you find Scripting option.

  • Select Enable radio button under Active scripting.

  • Finally click OK and come out

To disable JavaScript support in your Internet Explorer, you need to select Disable radio button under Active scripting.

JavaScript in Firefox

Here are the steps to turn on or turn off JavaScript in Firefox −

  • Open a new tab → type about: config in the address bar.

  • Then you will find the warning dialog. Select I’ll be careful, I promise!

  • Then you will find the list of configure options in the browser.

  • In the search bar, type javascript.enabled.

  • There you will find the option to enable or disable javascript by right-clicking on the value of that option → select toggle.

If javascript.enabled is true; it converts to false upon clicking toogle. If javascript is disabled; it gets enabled upon clicking toggle.

JavaScript in Chrome

Here are the steps to turn on or turn off JavaScript in Chrome −

  • Click the Chrome menu at the top right hand corner of your browser.

  • Select Settings.

  • Click Show advanced settings at the end of the page.

  • Under the Privacy section, click the Content settings button.

  • In the "Javascript" section, select "Do not allow any site to run JavaScript" or "Allow all sites to run JavaScript (recommended)".

JavaScript in Opera

Here are the steps to turn on or turn off JavaScript in Opera −

  • Follow Tools → Preferences from the menu.

  • Select Advanced option from the dialog box.

  • Select Content from the listed items.

  • Select Enable JavaScript checkbox.

  • Finally click OK and come out.

JavaScript Datatypes

One of the most fundamental characteristics of a programming language is the set of data types it supports. These are the type of values that can be represented and manipulated in a programming language. JavaScript allows you to work with three primitive data types −

Numbers, eg. 123, 120.50 etc.

Strings of text e.g. "This text string" etc.

Boolean e.g. true or false.

JavaScript also defines two trivial data types, null and undefined, each of which defines only a single value. In addition to these primitive data types, JavaScript supports a composite data type known as object. We will cover objects in detail in a separate chapter.

Note − JavaScript does not make a distinction between integer values and floating-point values. All numbers in JavaScript are represented as floating-point values. JavaScript represents numbers using the 64-bit floating-point format defined by the IEEE 754 standard

JavaScript Variable

Like many other programming languages, JavaScript has variables. Variables can be thought of as named containers. You can place data into these containers and then refer to the data simply by naming the container. Before you use a variable in a JavaScript program, you must declare it. Variables are declared with the var keyword as follows.

<script type = "text/javascript">
      var money;
      var name;

You can also declare multiple variables with the same var keyword as follows −

<script type = "text/javascript">
   var money, name;

Storing a value in a variable is called variable initialization. You can do variable initialization at the time of variable creation or at a later point in time when you need that variable. For instance, you might create a variable named money and assign the value 2000.50 to it later. For another variable, you can assign a value at the time of initialization as follows.

<script type = "text/javascript">
   var name = "Ali";
   var money;
   money = 2000.50;

Note − Use the var keyword only for declaration or initialization, once for the life of any variable name in a document. You should not re-declare same variable twice.

JavaScript is untyped language. This means that a JavaScript variable can hold a value of any data type. Unlike many other languages, you don't have to tell JavaScript during variable declaration what type of value the variable will hold. The value type of a variable can change during the execution of a program and JavaScript takes care of it automatically.JavaScript Variable Scope The scope of a variable is the region of your program in which it is defined. JavaScript variables have only two scopes.

JavaScript Variable

Local Variables - A global variable has global scope which means it can be defined anywhere in your JavaScript code.

Local Variables − A local variable will be visible only within a function where it is defined. Function parameters are always local to that function.

Within the body of a function, a local variable takes precedence over a global variable with the same name. If you declare a local variable or function parameter with the same name as a global variable, you effectively hide the global variable. Take a look into the following example

   <body onload = checkscope();>   
      <script type = "text/javascript">
         var myVar = "global";      // Declare a global variable
            function checkscope( ) {
               var myVar = "local";    // Declare a local variable

JavaScript Variable Names

While naming your variables in JavaScript, keep the following rules in mind.

  • You should not use any of the JavaScript reserved keywords as a variable name. These keywords are mentioned in the next section. For example, break or boolean variable names are not valid.

  • JavaScript variable names should not start with a numeral (0-9). They must begin with a letter or an underscore character. For example, 123test is an invalid variable name but _123test is a valid one.

  • JavaScript variable names are case-sensitive. For example, Name and name are two different variables.

JavaScript Reserved Keyword

A list of all the reserved words in JavaScript are given in the following table. They cannot be used as JavaScript variables, functions, methods, loop labels, or any object names.




























































Thanks for spending your time for this JavaScript article. I hope this helps you in getting starting your JavaScrip journey!